MSN  *  15th Annual International Conference, Nigerian Materials Congress (NIMACON - 2016)

Conference Days: 21st - 25th Nov., 2016

List of Accepted Abstracts


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This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of rice husk ash (RHA) on the index properties and hydraulic conductivity of lateritic soils as flexible pavement construction material. Laboratory tests were performed on the natural and rice husk ash treated soil samples in accordance with BS 1377 (1990) and BS 1924 (1990) respectively. Soil specimens were prepared by mixing the soil with rice husk ash in steps of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 % by weight of dry soil. The preliminary investigation carried out on the natural lateritic soil shows that it falls under A-6 soil group according to AASHTO (1986) classification and low plasticity clay, CL, according to unified soil classification system (USCS) (ASTM, 1992). The natural soil has low moisture content of 8.44 %, specific gravity of 2.50, liquid limit of 38.0%, plastic limit of 12.13%, plasticity index of 25.9%, cation exchange capacity of 12.4 (cmol/kg), maximum dry density (MDD) of 1.613 Mg/m3, optimum moisture contents (OMC) of 18.20 % with 73.55% of the soil particles passing through the BS. No 200 sieve. The liquid limit of the natural soil increased from 38.0% to a peak value of 40.5% at 6% RHA content then decreased with higher RHA content. The plastic limit also increased from 12.13% for the natural soil to a peak value of 22.5% at 12% RHA content. However, the plasticity index values decreased from 25.90% for the natural soil to a minimum value of 13.5% at 15% RHA content. The plasticity indexes of all the test samples were within the 30% value prescribed for sub grade pavement component by the Nigeria general specifications (1997). There was a general increase in hydraulic conductivity, moisture content, void ratio and porosity with increased rice hush ash (RHA) content. The values of the degree of saturation and air content were constantly 100 and 0 % respectively for all the tested samples. Based on the results of this study, RHA is suitable for soil treatment in light weight pavement construction.

Keywords: Rice husk ash, Atterberg limits, Hydraulic conductivity, Lateritic soil, Flexible pavement
Salahudeen A Bunyamin*, Sadeeq Ja'afar View



Lateritic soil obtained from Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria was treated with rice husk ash (RHA) obtained from Barkalawu farm, along Zaria-Kaduna express way. Air dried sample of the soil was treated with the RHA in stepped quantity of 0, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15% by dry weight of the soil. The preliminary experimental investigation carried out on the natural lateritic soil showed that it is highly plastic and of poor engineering benefit. The strength characteristics are very low, thereby rendering the soil unfit for use in dam and road construction according to geotechnical engineering design standards. The tests carried out showed that the maximum dry density (MDD) decreased continuously with increase in RHA content. The minimum MDD value recorded was 1.60 Mg/m3 at 15 %RHA content. The optimum moisture content (OMC) values increased continuously up to 15% RHA content. The optimum moisture content value of the natural state was 18.2%, while the peak value of 19.5% was observed at 15% RHA content. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) value increased from 182.07 KN/m2 for the natural soil when cured for 7 days to a peak value of 378.25 KN/m2 at 15% RHA content. The UCS values of all samples fell short of the requirement of 1710 KN/m2 by Road Note 31 (TRRL 1977) for economic range of ordinary Portland cement stabilization. The Unsoaked California bearing ratio (CBR) value of 2.58% for the natural soil increased to 12.45% at 15% RHA content. The 24 hours soaked CBR specimen of the natural soil recorded 1.74% with peak value of 8.05% at 15% RHA content. These values do not meet all recommendations by the Nigerian General Specifications (1997) for use in road construction.

Keywords: Rice husk ash, Maximum dry density, Optimum moisture content, unconfined compressive strength, California bearing ratio, Lateritic soils
Salahudeen A Bunyamin*, Sadeeq Ja'afar View



This study made use of standard penetration test (SPT) results obtained from the North-East geo-political zone of Nigeria to correlate soil properties and evaluate foundation bearing capacity and settlement characteristics for geotechnical preliminary design of foundations using some conventional empirical/analytical models and numerical modelling. The SPT N-values were corrected to the standard average energy of 60 % (N60) before the soil properties were evaluated. Using the corrected N-values, allowable bearing pressure of shallow foundations, bearing capacity of piles, elastic settlement of shallow foundation and total settlement of piles were predicted at varying applied foundation pressures of 50, 100, 200, 300 and 500 kN/m2. The numerical analysis results using Plaxis 2D, a finite element code, shows that Meyerhof and Peck et al. analytical/empirical methods of estimating the allowable bearing pressure of shallow foundations provided acceptable results. Results obtained show that an average bearing capacity value in the range 130 – 260 kN/m2 can be used for shallow foundations with embedment of 0.6 to 3.6 m. Based on recommendation of Eurocode 7 which allows a maximum total settlement of 25 mm for serviceability limit state, it is recommended that raft or deep foundations should be considered for applied foundation pressures exceeding 300 kN/m2 in North-East zone.

Keywords: Bearing capacity, Finite element method, Numerical modelling, Plaxis 2D, Settlement, Standard penetration test
Eberemu Adrian, Salahudeen A Bunyamin*, Ijimdiya Thomas, Osinubi Kolawole View



Safety and reliability of building infrastructure is a major concern for many state and federal agencies in Nigeria. In an effort to harmonize with structural codes, geotechnical design codes around the world are beginning to migrate towards reliability-based design (RBD). This research was aimed at the development of a method that will assist in the process of calibration of load and resistance factors for service limit state with focus on the soils of the South West geo-political zone of Nigeria based on standard penetration test (SPT) results. Reliability (probabilistic) analysis, expressed in the form of reliability index (β) and probability of failure (Pf) was performed for foundation settlement using First Order Reliability Method (FORM) in MATLAB. The footings were designed for a 25 mm allowable settlement value as recommended in Eurocode 7 for serviceability limit state (SLS) design which is a conventional approach. Reliability indices were calculated based on the Burland and Burbidge foundation settlement prediction method. Results of the reliability analysis show that, as the variability of geotechnical properties at a site increases, larger values of settlement were obtained with a higher probability of occurrence. Sensitivity study indicated that the applied foundation pressure and coefficient of variation (COV) of SPT N-value significantly affected the magnitude of foundation settlements. The use of COV value of 30% of SPT N-value based on the Burland and Burbidge method for SLS design is recommended for RBD of footings total settlement on soils in the South West geo-political zone of Nigeria.

Keywords: First order reliability method, Foundation settlement, Reliability analysis,-based design, Standard penetration test.
Ijimdiya Thomas, Salahudeen A Bunyamin*, Eberemu Adrian, Osinubi Kolawole View


Effect of Grafting Efficiency on Dyeability of Acrylic acid-g-Cellulose Fibre

Acrylic acid grafted cellulose fibre samples with graft efficiencies of 14, 18.3, 43.6, and 63.53% were dyed with basic, direct, and reactive dyes at neutral pH in the absence of electrolyte. Un-grafted cellulose fibre was also dyed to serve as control. Percentage exhaustion of the dyes by the samples as well as the amount of dye adsorbed per kilogram fibre were determined using calibration curves. In all cases, the higher the graft efficiency, the higher the amount of dye adsorbed. It was found that the samples adsorbed more malachite green, a basic dye, than the other dye classes used.
Sani Abdullahi*, M.K Yakubu, P.O Nkeonye, K.A Bello View



The textile industry is a water demanding industry that produces a titanic volume of wastewater. The wastewater created from the textile industry is largely overloaded with noxious waste containing expended textile dyes, surfactants, suspended solids, electrolytes, mineral oils, etc. Hence, it is very essential to be appropriately treated before reuse or disposal. Water reuse continues to rise as demand for fresh water supplies increases worldwide. By recycling and reusing treated wastewater, communities and industries can save on the costs of clean water, ensure adequate supplies and help to preserve a diminishing natural resource. The increase in water reuse has been driven largely by innovative treatment technologies that are both cost effective and reliable in removing harmful bacteria and pathogens. Nanofiltration technology offers several varied applications covering many aspects of the textile processing. This paper presents descriptions of some of the uses Nanofiltration have in textile operations and their benefits, it also delivers a scientific and technical overview and useful information to scientists and engineers who work in this field.

Keywords: Chromophore, Textile effluent, Coagulation–flocculation, membrane, Salt recovery, Atomic force microscopy.
Abdulraheem Giwa*, Abdullahi Danladi View


Experimental Investigation of Diesel - Kerosene Adulteration and the Safety Implications

Usman Abubakar*, Ali Ahmed, Bilal Sabiu, Aminu A. Hamisu, Bashar Dan-Asabe, Abubakar Abbas Jibril View


Determination of Optimum Processing Condition for Plied Cotton Fabric and Low Density Polyethylene Waste Composites Fabricated by Compression Moulding

The aim of this work is to determine the optimum processing condition for plied cotton fabric reinforced Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) waste composites, reduce environmental pollution and optimize the properties of textile composites from cotton origin. In this work, the LDPE wastes were melted at 100°C and were used as the matrix. The composites were fabricated using compression moulding method at different processing conditions. Tensile properties, flexural properties, impact strength and hardness of the composite were analyzed. From the test results, high processing conditions led to reduced mechanical properties. The inclusion of cotton fabrics made with plied coarse yarns improved the tensile strength of the composites for up to 85% (18.63 MPa) with respect to the control (10.07 MPa). The optimum tensile (18.63 MPa), hardness (73.8 HV), flexural strength (17.8 MPa) and impact properties (5.3 J) occurred at 120°C, 2 minutes and 2 pascals with an increase of 47 to 129% with respect to the LDPE waste composites only. It can be concluded that the best processing condition for such composites is at 120°C, 2 minutes and 2 pascals without damage to the cotton fabrics. LDPE waste composites from pure water sachets used as matrix and cotton fabrics from plied yarns of coarse count as the reinforcement gave relatively good mechanical properties and its utilization in composite development will help to solve the environment problems associated with these LDPE wastes. The composites therefore, have adequate properties for non-load bearing applications in building constructions as partition panels and particle board products. Thus, temperature, pressure and time have great influence on the mechanical properties of plied cotton fabric/LDPE waste composites fabricated by compression moulding.

Keywords: Compression moulding, LDPE wastes, plied cotton fabric and textile composite.
Okechukwu Emmanuel Emmanuel*, Amina Liti, David Daniel, Marryann Ifeoma Anigbogu View


Elucidation of microbial decolourization and degradation efficiency of recalcitrant-carcinogenic azo dye Congo red by novel bacterial strains

Novel bacterial strains capable of decolorizing textile dyes was isolated from dye contaminated soil obtained from the vicinity of African Textiles Industry Challawa, Kano - Nigeria. The carcinogenic azo dye Congo red widely used in various industrial processes poses terrific environmental concern, causing major health problems to human beings. In the present study, decolourization of Congo red by newly isolated antibiotics sensitive novel bacterial strains from dyes contaminated soil of a treatment plant capable of decolorizing organic dyes were investigated and identified as Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains by 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis. Decolorization of Congo red dye using these bacterial strains was assayed by screening and optimizing various parameters to determine the optimal conditions required for maximum decolourization. Rhodococcus rhodochrous and Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed maximum decolourization upon incubation for 24 hrs at 37°C and pH 7. Enhanced decolourization was achieved by amendment with glucose and peptone as well as carbon and nitrogen sources in the culture medium. The bacterial strains showed great potential in the decolourization of Congo red dye up to 96.1% and 91.1% in the aqueous environment at optimal conditions. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis confirmed that dye decolorization occurred due to the breakdown of dye molecules into colourless end products. The less toxic nature of the dye degraded products was observed by microbial toxicity assay of agricultural significant bacteria and this can be exploited for the bioremediation of different class of textile dyes and their derivatives containing wastes.

Keywords: Antibiotic sensitive bacteria, bacterial strains, decolourization, organic dyes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Rhodococcus rhodochrous
Ibrahim U Mohammed*, Muhammad Sani Galadima, Mustapha Shinkafi Sallau, Jamil Musa Hayatu View



Comprehensive evaluation of the reliability of distribution of electric power systems requires sophisticated stochastic modeling. This paper therefore considered an application of Petri- Nets (PN) to model complex interaction among the factors affecting power quality. This presents a methodology for fault location in distribution systems of electric energy through remote management of fault indicators in a distribution network of Abuja. The selection of the network is based on features such as quality indicators (SAIDI, SAIFI, CAIDI, CAIFI and ASAI), network topology, and others. As the power systems increase in size and complexity, the real-time operation becomes an important and demanding task. When the system is under faulty condition, a great deal of information reaches the operator monitor desk, making it hard and stressful to take the right decision to restore to normal state of operation. To cope with this situation, a fault diagnosis method based on petri-nets (PN) is reported in this work. The proposed method aims to ease the burden of the power system operators by presenting a simple diagnosis of faults location in both, the substation, the transmission and the distribution lines. A fault diagnosis system based on PN has been developed which is independent of the power system topology. Flexibility and effectiveness of the PNs model have been validated to be as a decision support for restoration scheduling. It can point out the fault type, the faulty phase(s), and whether relays or circuit breakers that have failed. Two case studies were analyzed and presented.
Okorie U. Patrick*, Aliyu U.O, Boyi Jimoh, Sani S.M. View


Building Houses with Locally Available Materials in Edo State, Nigeria: Cost, Benefits and Problems

Housing is one of the basic necessities of life after food and clothing. The high cost of building materials in Nigeria is making the stakeholders to look for alternative sources of building materials locally. Therefore, the purpose of this paper was to empirically examine the cost, major benefits and problems with houses constructed with local materials in a developing country. Relevant texts, journals, personal interviews, past cost data and administered questionnaire were used to obtain data from the stratified randomly sampled population. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 70 questionnaire administered to respondents using structured questionnaire. Only 55 questionnaire were returned and accepted for analysis. The questionnaire were administered to Architects, Engineers, Quantity Surveyors, Builders, Selected Clients and Contractors. The percentile grading and mean score stratified techniques were used to analyze the data. From the findings, promotion of cultural heritage, abundance of materials in the locality, provision of cool room temperature, enhance technological advancement, create employment, source of conserving foreign exchange, bring down the price of foreign materials, availability and affordability of some local building materials were the major benefits of houses built with locally available materials. Others were reduction in energy usage, cut down CO2 emissions, and minimize generated wastes. The study identified the significant problems associated with building houses with locally available materials as: low strength, frequent maintenance, legal acceptability, social acceptability, requirement of increased labour work, and easily wearing of erosion of the materials as the most significant. Others were technology to handle the setting, uncertainty of the cost, double standard in the part of the government, lack of standards and specifications, problem of mass production, and uncertainty about the demand and strength of materials. Also, findings reveal that some of these local materials were expensive, example is stabilized earth blocks. Based on the findings, the study recommended among others that professional institutions in the built environment should collaborate and put up an executive bill that will enhance and encourage entrepreneur in developing local building materials through the Federal Ministry of Power, Works and Housing to the National Assembly. Also the joint institutes should ensure that the Proposed Construction Bank come to reality that would encourage investors to invest in improving local building materials. Government should fund Nigeria Building Research and Road Institute (NBRRI) very well with a view to meet up with the mandate.

Keywords: Building Materials Cost of Building, Houses, Local Materials.


Prospects and Developmental Challenges of Mechatronics Engineering Education in Nigeria

The increasing demand by industries for engineers with skills that cut across multiple disciplines triggered universities to mount Mechatronics engineering programme that requires introduction of electronics, microprocessors and computers into mechanical systems for improvement of quality factors, more flexibility and easy reprogramming, reliability and precision in industrial processes. A good understanding of these areas is mandatory if our graduate engineers are to be relevant to industries with time. The challenges in developing such program in terms of curriculum planning, laboratory facility needs and staff requirements are discussed in this paper at the same time, as there are immense advantages of such a discipline, its success depends on use of well developed curriculum with good laboratory facilities and appropriate linkages with industries, positive attitudes and well-oriented academic staff as well as students having the ability to cope with rigors associated with diversified subjects.
Haruna Musa* View


Development of Fe2O3 semiconductor nanowires by template directed

This development was successfully achieved through bottom-up synthetic approach by the coordination of the DNA backbone and phosphate group via donor sites with the Fe2O3 nanoparticles. Chemical identity of the nanowires were achieved using XRD, EDX and XPS. Structural information were performed by UV-vis, FTIR, TEM and AFM to access the DNA-Fe2O3 interactions and nanowires size/morphology. FTIR studies suggested that DNA/Fe2O3 nanostructured contains Fe2O3 nanoparticles bound to the phosphodiester backbone of the DNA indicated by major shifts in the PO2- stretches. Evolution of morphology of the nanostructures were observed by AFM and TEM with strands which are more densely packed linear arrangements of nanoparticles into a dendritic features extending in the direction of template axis. Schematic representation of the developed DNA/Fe2O3 nanowire Statistical treatment on AFM data on DNA/Fe2O3 nanowire for size distribution was carried out and broad size mean diameters of 26 nm in height with granular, continuous morphology and three apparent trimodal distributions values with distinct modal values at 4-5, 12-13 and 19-20 nm respectively were observed. Electrical properties shows positive phase shifts obtained at bias ranged from -3V to -7V indicating that the structure were of low conductivity and therefore highly resistive structure. Lack of negative phase shifts in the EMF is an index for lack of conductive pathways along the DNA/Fe2O3 structure. The results provide significant information on the nanostructural interactions and building block effectiveness of DNA as template.

Keywords: polymer, templating, conducting materials, Fe2O3, supramolecular, DNA
Zubairu Momohjimoh Siyaka*, Horrocks Ben, Suleima Idris, Adamu Uzairu, Gimba Emmanuel View


Effect of Sintering Time on Mechanical Properties of Porous Ti-6Al-4V Implant

Titanium alloy is popular in biomedical application owing to its low density, good biocompatibility (i.e. biological and chemical inertness) and excellent mechanical properties but due to high disparity between the implant and bone Young’s moduli, it causes stress shielding in the body. Porous Ti alloy implant has proven to be effective in addressing this issue, so in this work, we created porous Ti-6Al-4V implant by sieving the as-received Ti-6Al-4V powder into different particle sizes and sintering it without pressure at 980oC for 0.5hrs, 1 hr, 2hrs up to 5 hrs. The wettability and the mechanical properties of the sintered samples are elucidated using a contact angle measurement setup, nanoindentation and universal testing machine. The results show that there is a direct relationship between the Young’s modulus of the samples and the sintering time.
Akeem A Azeez* View


Optical Fibre Sensor for Bio-solution Sensing

Optical fibre refractive index is being tailored for specific measurement of bio-solutions via coating of the fibres using nanomaterials such as silica and alumina sol-gel. The fibre sensitivity increases with variation in refractive index of the coatings. Also the coating technique adopted is found to have a serious effect on the sensitivity of the sensor. Curing temperature, withdrawal speed and pre-cleaning of the fibre surface were also found to play an important role in optical fibre sensor fabrication. Some of the best analytical techniques for optical fibre sensor characterization includes: environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), optical spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and ellipsometer for refractive index determination. The experimental data can also be validated via theoretical modelling of the refractive index and coating thickness using FilmStar® optical software.

Keywords: Bio-sensing, optical fibre, refractive index, bio-solution, dip-coating, spin coating and Langmuir-Blodgett.
Christian Nwosu* View



The increase in material costs in the Nigerian building industry, especially conventional blocks (sandcrete) made building construction products expensive and created a deficit of about 17 million as at 2014. Housing, despite its importance to man, has become a serious problem in recent times. Therefore, the need to find more cost saving alternatives so as to maintain the cost of constructing houses at prices affordable to clients cannot be over–emphasized. Perhaps, the interlocking masonry (mortarless blocks) which are made up of laterite and cement abound could be exploited to help reduce the cost of sustainable housing provision in Edo State, Nigeria. This paper sought to explore the comparative study of interlocking masonry (mortarless blocks) and conventional types (sandcrete blocks) for building walling systems with a view to sustainable housing provision in Edo State, Nigeria. This has become inevitable because wall construction is one of the major components of the entire building process. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 80 questionnaire administered to respondents using structured questionnaire. Only 69 questionnaires were returned and accepted for analysis. The questionnaires were administered to Architects, Engineers, Quantity Surveyors, Builders, Selected Clients and Contractors. This comprises 20 workers of Samthin Hydraform Company Nigeria Limited, 39 personnel from consultancy firms, and 10 private individuals and use of convenience & purposive sampling techniques were adopted. To determine whether there was any statistically significant differences between the mean values, paired- sample t-test at the 0.05 level of significance was adopted. Results showed that the use of interlocking blocks do not only lead to elimination of a number of non-value adding activities associated with the use of the sandcrete blocks, but also make the wall construction process cheaper and faster. It was also discovered that the absence of mortar jointing in the interlocking system reduced the quantity of materials and faster like cement and sand required in the sandcrete wall construction process. The study reveals that there was no statistically difference between the compressive strength of interlocking blocks and conventional sandcrete blocks. But there was statistically difference between construction cost and speed of construction using the two systems of construction. The study concludes that a mortarless system indicates a reduction to labour costs, lesser material waste and construction time, which validates this new trend as a cost- effective alternative. Therefore, masonry is a good replacement to the conventional types in construction and sustainable housing provision in Nigeria.

Keywords: Conventional blocks, Housing, Interlocking blocks, Masonry, Sustainability.


Temperature Effect on the Geotechnical Properties of Selected Black Cotton Soils.

This study examines the effect of temperature variation on the geotechnical properties of selected black cotton soils in Northeastern Nigeria. Black cotton soil was sourced from two borrow pit in Numan and Biu and each subjected to geotechnical investigation. Soil samples were subjected to high temperatures of 25 °C, 50 °C, 75°C, 100°C and 150°C for 240 minutes, respectively. The natural soils were classified as A-7-6 (15) and A-7-6 (11) for Numan and Biu black cotton soil respectively, using the AASHTO soil classification system.T est carried out include Atterberg limit, free swell, compaction and California Bearing Ratio.Statistical analysis was carried out on results obtained using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with the Microsoft Excel Analysis Tool Pak Software Package to determine the levels of significance of effect of temperature variation on the properties of the soil. XLSTART 2014 statistical tool incorporated as add-in in Microsoft Excel was use for the correlation analysis. Test results showed a decrease in liquid limit and plastic limit, increase in maximum dry density(MDD), with corresponding decrease in the California Bearing Ration(CBR).No general trend was established for plasticity index(PI) and optimum moisture content(OMC). Based on results an optimal temperature of 100°C is recommended for improving the geotechnical properties of the treated soils.

Key words: Temperature, Numan, Biu, Black cotton soil, Correlation, Analysis of variance.
paul yohanna* View


Evaluation of Compacted Laterite Soil Treated with Incinerator Ash

The effect of Incinerator Ash (IA) generated from an educational institution on compacted laterite soil was studied. The soil was classified as A–2– 4(0) subgroup of the AASHTO classification system. The natural soil has a liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index values of 24, 19.6 and 4.4%, respectively. The natural soil was treated with up to 12% incinerator ash by dry weight of soil. Specimens of treated soil were compacted with British Standard light, BSL or standard Proctor (relative compaction = 100%),West African Standard, WAS and British Standard heavy, BSH or modified Proctor and subjected to index, compaction, falling head permeability test and California bearing ratio(CBR). Results showed that properties of the modified soil improved when treated with Incinerator Ash. Test results show a decrease in maximum dry density (MDD), with an increase in optimum moisture content (OMC) as well as a decrease in hydraulic conductivity. No general was established for CBR values for WAS and BSH compactive effort. The CBR values generally decreased with BSL energy level. Statistical analysis using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that Incinerator ash and compactive effort have significant effect on the geotechnical properties of the soil. Based on the result obtained, an optimal blend of 2% incinerator ash compacted at BSH energy level optimally improved the geotechnical properties of the modified soil and is recommended for geotechnical applications.

Key words:Laterite soil, Incinerator ash, Analysis of variance.
paul yohanna* View



The properties of PA6/graphite (G) microcomposites were benchmark with those of pure PA6 in order study the effect G inclusion and its loading level using melt processing. An industrial scale twin screw extruder (Leistritz) was initially used to compound PA6 with G whereas; a Negri Bossi injection moulding machine was used to produce tensile dumbbells which were used as the test specimens. Differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Dynamic Mechanical and Thermal Analysis (DMTA), Tensile test and Scanning electron microscopy were used to characterise the specimens. In the DSC, all melting endotherms remained approximately 220°C for both pure PA6 and the composites regardless of G loading. But G inclusion led to early nucleation during recrystallization with the maximum average being 3.5°C between the microcomposites and pure PA6. Notwithstanding this though, the crystalline content decreased with increased G loading. For the as produced specimens, the difference between the pure PA6 and the microcomposites ranged between 10—16.5% with this difference increasing with G loading. With the DMTA results, storage modulus increased with G loading though not in an order of magnitude. This directly indicated the reinforcing effect of G since the crystalline content decreased. The storage modulus increase appeared to diminish with G loading thus, indicating that with the processing conditions used, G loading level had likely attained its threshold. However, room temperature storage modulus (RTSM) doubled between PA6 and the 25G composite whereas the glass transition temperature Tg, slightly decreased as a result of G inclusion with the maximum difference being approximately 5°C. The growth in modulus within the micromposites was insignificant. The highest ratio being 1.25 whereas, a significant modulus rise occurred between any of the microcomposites relative to pure PA6. The highest ratio was 3.78 between pure PA6 and 25G. Pure PA6 exhibited yield strength of 64.5MPa whereas the microcomposites exhibited a slight increase with the highest tensile strength being 70.2MPa for 25G microcomposite. Microscopy suggested weak interfacial interaction with visible signs of uncoated G fillers pulled out from tensile test failed specimens.

Keywords: Microcomposites, crystalline content and modulus.
KEY: 25G means microcomposite with 25wt% Graphite in 75wt% PA6.
Muneer Umar* View


Preparation and Characterization of Photocatalytic Modified Kaolinite Clay Ceramic Membrane Filter for Remediation of Polluted Water

Photocatalytic ceramic membrane filter was prepared from raw kaolinite clay. Ag-doped TiO2 nanoparticles (STOX) was used as the main modification component for the ceramic. Characterizations of the materials were carried out using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive X-ray Emission (EDX), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffractrometry (XRD). Ceramic membranes were formed by press method and subsequently subjected to a high temperature sintering treatment for physico-chemical stability. Ceramic membrane modules were constructed and experiments were carried out to test the remediation functionalities on polluted water using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and Total Bacterial Count Enumeration. Experimental results showed reduction in the concentration of heavy metal ions such as Cd2+, Ni2+ and K+ by some samples, while increased concentrations were observed for Ca2+, Na+ and Mg2+. Ceramic membranes exhibited highest flux output of 246.685 L/hr.m2 under a transmembrane pressure of 0.0196 MPa. The antimicrobial microfiltration process indicated 100% bacterial removal and 70% fungi removal in most of the samples.
Emmanuel Ajenifuja*, John Ajao, Ezekiel Ajayi View


Extraction of an Essential Oil from Clove’s Buds Using an Ultrasonic-assisted Method

Cloves (Syzygium aromaticum L.) are the aromatic dried flower buds of a tree in the family Myrtacae. Clove’s essential oil is widely used as aromatherapy and for toothache treatment. Development of extraction technology that could increase oil yield from clove would thus significantly enhance the profitability of the clove’s oil and reduce processing costs significantly. It has been shown that ultrasound-assisted extraction method which uses vibrations to extract samples with polar solvents in an ultrasonic bath can enhance extraction of phytochemicals from plant sources while reducing processing time and solvent consumption. In this this research work an essential oils was obtained from clove’s buds using an ultrasonic-assisted method with n-hexane as extraction solvent at different ultrasonic machine power rate of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500W at constant time of 20 minutes at room temperature, the chemical compounds present in the different essential oil were analyzed using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS). The GC-MS results shows that the maximum content of eugenol and eugenyl acetate in extracts were 8.09% and 9.24%, and were extracted from clove buds at ultrasonic powers of 500 W and 300 W respectively.

Key words: Ultrasounic-assisted, Extraction, GC-MS, clove’s buds, n-hexane, Room temperature, Eugenol, Eugenyl-acetate, Essential oil
suleiman yunusa*, yusuf umar muhammed, Haruna Ibrahim View



Investigation on the leaching of a Nigerian beryl ore by hydrochloric acid for possible industrial production of beryllium chloride (BeCl2) as a raw material for the electrolysis of beryllium as well as catalyst for Friedel-Craft reactions was examined. Some important parameters such as the effects of acid concentration, temperature and particle size on the dissolution rates of beryl ore were investigated. Distribution of elements and compounds present within the ore with particle size -90 + 75 μm was initially determined by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to provide basis for explaining the dissolution process. It was observed that dissolution rates were greatly affected by increasing acid concentration, temperature and decreasing particle diameter. Kinetic data analysis showed that the dissolution mechanism followed a diffusion controlled reaction as the rate controlling step. At optimal leaching conditions, 69.1% of the ore was reacted by 2.5 mol/L at 75°C temperature and 120 minutes with moderate stirring. The reaction order was calculated to be 0.50, while the activation energy supporting the proposed mechanism was deduced to be 38.88 kJ/mol from appropriate. Arrhenius plot. The X-ray diffraction analysis of the unleached residue at optimal leaching showed that it contains admixtures of siliceous impurities such as magnesite (Mg,Fe)CO3), kaolinite (Al2Si2O5(OH)4), calcite (CaCO3) and orthoclase (KAlSi3O8). Purification of the beryl leach liquor was carried out by solvent extraction technique. In all experiments, the amount of beryllium extracted was quantitatively analyzed spectrophotometrically using the Chrome Azurol S. (CAS) method and further beneficiated to obtain high grade industrial beryllium chloride (BeCl2, Melting point = 388.4°C).
Alafara A Baba* View



The effect of cassava starch binder on the foundry properties of sand from Makurda river in Rimi LGA, Katsina State was investigated. Specimens were prepared for testing the following foundry properties: green compression strength, dry compression strength, permeability and moisture content. The content of the starch binder in the moulding mixtures was varied as 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%. The results showed that the highest value of green compression strength was obtained with 6% binder content. The highest dry compression strength was obtained at 10% binder content and the permeability values obtained at 2% binder content was the highest. At 4% binder content, the values of results obtained indicated that the moulding sand can be suitable for dry mould casting of steel. The investigation also revealed that the sand cannot be used for casting of non-ferrous metal such as aluminium because the green compression strength, dry compression strength and permeability obtained when compared with the standard values were not good enough for casting non-ferrous metals using cassava starch as a binder. Based on the results of the investigation, Makurda river sand mixed with cassava starch binder is not suitable for casting non-ferrous metals.
mahdi makoyo * View




An intelligent knowledge-base system has the capacity to acquire, store, retrieve, communicate, process, and use knowledge for the purpose of solving problems. A database management system is designed to assist in maintaining and utilizing large collection of data. However, a knowledge-base differs by performing and supporting tasks which usually require human expertise to complete. Moreover, with the support of knowledge-base and database management systems,database and knowledge-base have become ubiquitous as tools for organizing and managing information. This study introduces descriptions of the recent database and knowledge-base, and examines them in terms of structure, design procedure, and management techniques for content acquisition, storage and retrieval mechanisms, and application.

Keywords: knowledge-base system, database system, human expertise, structure, design procedure, content acquisition.
Azubike E Agbo* View



A solar still for water desalination employs the natural evaporation of saline water to produce potable water for human consumption. This paper presents the design and development of a prototype basin-type solar still intended to be used for water desalination in areas lacking clean drinking water. The solar still consists of a shallow pan containing water, covered with a glass ‘roof’ slanted, forming an evaporation chamber and condensation chamber. Solar energy heats the water, causing it to evaporate; the vapor condenses on the underside of the inclined glass cover and runs down into the collecting troughs at the lower edge. Its principle of operation and main design parameters are discussed. Results obtained from performance tests of the prototype solar still are also presented in this paper.

Keywords: solar still, glass, evaporation chamber, condensation chamber.
Azubike E Agbo* View


Stress Engineering of Multi-pass welds of 304L Austenitic Steels to Enhance Structural Integrity

AISI Type 304L austenitic stainless steels are extensively used in industries, and welding is an essential tool used for joining these materials. The formation of large residual stresses continues to be a problematic side effect of all common welding processes. In a multi-pass weld, the development of residual stress to a large extent depends on the response of the weld metal, heat affected zone and parent material to complex thermo-mechanical cycles during welding. In this research, both mechanical tensioning and heat treatment were used to modify the residual stress distribution in and around the weld metal of 12mm thick 304L austenitic stainless steels. The residual stress was determined nondestructively by using neutron diffraction. Residual stress analysis show that post weld cold rolling (mechanical tensioning) was effective in modifying the longitudinal residual stress distribution throughout the entire thickness. However, the heat treatment (using laser) after cold rolling showed minor grain refinement but this method was not effective as it reinstated the stress state generated after welding.
Jibrin Sule*, Danladi S. Matawal, Solomon T. Maijidadi View


Insulation of power electronic converter for subsea oil and gas exploration

The quest for power electronic converters to operate in a subsea pressurized environment that is completely filled with appropriate dielectric liquid brings about the need to study the insulation performance of liquid in the system while in operation. The edges of the metallization of the power converter are the critical regions. These regions are susceptible to high electric field stress on the application of high voltage and electrical discharges can be initiated around the region. These could lead to insulation deterioration and eventually breakdown of the system. This paper presents the study of partial discharges (PDs) along the trench between metallization edges of a model of insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) model embedded in insulating liquid under fast transient voltage. The electric field distribution at the high field region was modelled and the PD measurement was performed. The influence of pressure and liquid nature on PD activity around the triple region was evaluated and discussed
Abdelghaffar A Abdelmalik* View


Influence of Geometry and Voltage Type on Partial Discharges in High Voltage Equipment

High voltage equipment involves both electrical and electronic components. In electrical power network which consist of rotating machine, power transformers and transmission lines, field enhancement at critical regions can lead to local break down (Partial discharges). The continuous occurrence of partial discharges can lead to complete breakdown. Power electronics such as power converters operate at voltage up to 6.5kV. Sharp edges cannot be avoided during fabrication due to the miniature nature of the semiconductor device as a result high field regions exist while in operation. These regions are prone to partial discharge activities. Different power equipment operates at different voltages such as AC, DC, square voltage, pulse voltage, fast rise transient voltage etc. This work presents the influence of sinusoidal voltage, square voltage and fast rise voltage on two different geometries. Fast rise voltage has the lowest partial discharge inception voltage while the sinusoidal voltage has the highest. This is due to the presence of homo-charges which shield the electrode from early inception of partial discharges when sinusoidal voltage was applied.
Abdelghaffar A Abdelmalik* View


Synthesis of thermally stable seed oil base-fluid for industrial application

Vegetable oil was proposed as an alternative base fluid for oil-base drilling mud but its unsaturated nature which made it to be highly unstable to oxidation was never discussed. The introduction of oil base drilling fluid was based on its high stability but vegetable oil is unstable at elevated temperature. This is an indication that vegetable oil in its natural form cannot serve as a viable alternative drilling mud base fluid. This paper presents the rheology and electrical properties of purified neem oil (PNO) and its derivatives that have undergone chemical modification to stabilizing it. Epoxy neem was processed from laboratory purified neem oil. This was done by converting the double bonds in the long fatty acid chains to epoxy rings. A slight increase was observed in the viscosity of the epoxy oil. The mid frequency dielectric response of the PNO and its derivatives were analysed and related to ionic conduction. The bulk conductivity was observed to be thermally activated and viscosity has influence on the conductivity of the oil.
Abdelghaffar A Abdelmalik* View



The discussion in this paper is part of research directed at establishing optimal utilization strategy of polystyrene in checking rising dampness in building construction. The deployment context for the use of the polystyrene was carried out in CITEC Mbora Estate housing development of the Federal Capital City (FCT). The fabrication of polystyrene walling and ribs for slabs are increasingly and effectively being used in different housing units. This discussion specifically focuses on strategies that can be used to counter deterioration of walling due to capillary action- driven underground water rise. The impact of using the polystyrene, iron wire mesh, and application of surface cement concrete mixture in binding and stabilizing the structure was assessed. The durability of the expanded polystyrene (EPS) was assessed using the adoption of the materials at site and based on structured interview with residents of the estate. A total of 200 questionnaires representing a 10% of the sample size were administered in the seven avenues that make up the estate cutting across houses that were built with polystyrene and those without polystyrene. The long term benefits of energy saving, cost, durability and maintenance cannot be overstated amongst the most important considerations in the building industry. When building with sandcrete block system it is possible to save on labour, time taken to complete the project and the overall construction costs. Environmental sustainable housing will become achievable and by building with polystyrene blocks, individual and private companies who are into mass housing production can ensure that their buildings meet environmental induced threats resistance, particularly capillary rise regulation. A polystyrene requirement not only serve as insulator to heat and rising dampness but also goes to serves as sound proofs material, energy saving, and environmentally friendly and clean method of construction.

Keywords: Building Construction Expanded Polystyrene, Insulator, Optimal Utilization, Rising Dampness.
Philip A. Kigun* View


Thermal Expansion and Thermal Conductivity of Non-Interacting Electron Gases.

In this paper the modified Landau theory of Fermi Liquids was used to compute thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of quasi-particles in metals. The result revealed that as temperature increases the thermal expansion of quasi-particles in metals increases in all the metals investigated. It is also observed that as the electron density parameter increases the thermal expansion of quasi-particles increases. This shows that at low density region the thermal expansion of quasi-particles is large. The result obtained for the thermal conductivity of quasi-particles in metals revealed that for all the metals computed the thermal conductivity of quasi-particles decreases as temperature increases. This seems to suggest that as temperature increases the separation between quasi-particles increases because they are not heavy particles hence, the rate of absorbing heat decreases. The computed thermal expansion and thermal conductivity of quasi-particles are in better agreement with experimental values. This suggest that the introduction of the electron density parameter is promising in predicting the contribution of quasi-particles to the bulk properties of metals. This study revealed the extent to which quasi-particles contribute to the bulk properties of metals, which assisted their potential applications in materials science and engineering development.

Keywords: Electron gas, Quasi-particles, Electron density parameter, Thermal Expansion, Thermal Conductivity.
Edema O. gregory* View


A Comparative Study of Load-bearing Capability of Cocoa pod Husk Particles – filled Polyester and Epoxy Composites

This paper presents a comparative study of the load-bearing capability of cocoa pod husk particles filled polyester and epoxy composites. Cocoa pod husk particle filler of up to 15 w/w% and average particle size of 100 μm was used in polyester and epoxy as matrices materials. Composite test pieces, fabricated in the form of ASTM standard flat dog-bone shape, were subjected to tensile test and a comparative study of the load-bearing capability of the particulate composites in polyester and epoxy was carried out. It was observed that within the investigated filler concentration range, the strength and strain at maximum stress of both composites decreased as the filler concentration increased with slightly higher levels in epoxy compared to polyester. The trend in the response of polyester, though no appreciable change with filler loading, is much higher than those of epoxy matrix composite. The modulus of epoxy composite increased steadily up to only about 5% concentration before remaining constant as the filler concentration increased. In applications where strength is favoured, the presence of cocoa pod particulates in the two matrices would not be recommended. However, filler content in the neighbourhood of 6 w/w% within the epoxy matrix, giving an optimum strength of about 50 MPa would be recommended in appropriate applications. The tensile modulus of epoxy composite is stable at about 1,300 MPa at 5 w/w% filler concentration and above. Polyester, though of higher modulus value is useable only at its peak between 3-7 w/w% filler concentration. The hardness value obtained in the filled polyester, which is of much lower values, up to 6 w/w%, and remained constant as the filler concentration increased. In epoxy however, the hardness numbers were much higher but decreased steadily as the concentration increased. The microstructure of the composite showed the fillers to be non spherical in shape but the filler-matrix interface bonding appeared firm as there was no observable discontinuity. This work has significant implications for the utilization of this important non-spherical, non-rigid but abundantly available post agricultural harvest waste material, as a material that can be used to make significant cost saving in the relatively more expensive epoxy matrix materials in light load-bearing applications. The study found that apart from the common use of cocoa pod husk in the soap making industry especially in Nigeria and Ghana, it would have immediate impact as a possible reinforcement material of choice, especially the epoxy matrix, in floor and roof tiling, partitioning and other architectural and aesthetic products in the building and construction industry where good hardness rather than load-bearing capability is required.
Babaniyi Babatope* View



Natural dyes were extracted from Parkia biglobosa using soxhlet apparatus. Ethanol, Methanol and n-hexane were used for the extraction and each was used for 45, 60 and 90 minutes respectively. Methanol was identified as a more efficient solvent as it has the highest yield of 39.4% at 90minutes than ethanol and n-hexane having 12.6% and 2.4% yield respectively. The dye was characterised by colour, texture, pH, melting point, solubility, FTIR and UV-visible spectroscopy. The colour of the dye extracted is brown with a fine texture, having a pH of 3.5, melting point above 320ºC and it is dispersed in water at 60-100ºC. Dye M has the highest UV-visible absorbance of 492nm, Dye E and Dye n-h having 426nm and 396nm respectively. The FTIR spectra of the dyes present O-H stretch at peaks above 3306 cm-1, C-H stretch (aliphatic) above 2855 cm-1, C=O stretch around 1703 cm-1 and C-O stretch above 1013 cm-1.The dyes were applied on polyester, wool, cotton and nylon 6.6 fabrics. Good wash and light fastness was observed with polyester and wool.

Keywords: Absorbance, Dye, Parkia biglobosa, Yield.
Sedoo S Shimakaa* View



Waste plastics especially low density polyethylene constituting environmental menace due to their increasing production and consequent consumption in recent times can be made useful by recycling methods that converts these wastes to fuels. The recycling process involves the use of catalysts for effective conversion of the wastes; for this research work, mordenite catalysts in four categories were prepared and characterized using XRD, FTIR, BET and SEM. The commercial mordenite (MOR) was calcined at 500°C to obtain HMOR, acid treatment was done at room temperature, and then modification of the HMOR by metal impregnation was carried out by loading 0.3 wt% and 0.6 wt% of Fe on the MOR zeolite support to improve the acidic and catalytic properties. The FTIR spectra shows that there was no structural deformation of the catalysts even after modification; the BET surface area of all the four catalysts show a trend of improvement to the MOR zeolite as the acid strength increase due to removal of framework aluminium by acid treatment and also, modification by metal impregnation enhanced the catalytic properties. The surface area was highest for the acid treated MOR (421mm2/g), while the pore sizes ranged from 2.0 – 2.7 nm for all four catalysts. The SEM images also show the improvement in the crystalline structure as modification is done to the commercial MOR. The XRD patterns are confirmation of the structure of the catalysts which remain intact throughout the four samples.The results of the analyses show tremendous properties of the catalysts needed for the reforming purpose.

Keywords: mordenite catalysts, catalyst modification, pyrolysis, catalytic reforming, waste low density polyethylene.
Aishat A. Osigbesan* View


Interfacial and corrosion-inhibiting effect of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius leave extract on copper (CU131729) corrosion in 2 M HCl and 3.5% NaCl solution

Inhibition effect of Tapinanthus dodoneifolius (TD) leaves extract on corrosion of copper in 2 M HCl and 3.5% NaCl solution has been investigate by weight loss, polarization technique and quantum chemical calculations. Surface morphology and elemental analysis was carried out on the corroded specimen using SEM/EDS to compliment results obtained. The weight loss results showed that the corrosion inhibition potentials of TD as temperature-concentration dependent. Polarization studies showed that TD suppressed both the cathodic and anodic processes by acting as mixed-type inhibitor without altering the corrosion mechanism. Calculated thermodynamic parameters (〖∆H〗_ads^* , 〖∆S〗_ads^*) showed that adsorption process is spontaneous with electrostatic interactions which indicates physical adsorption. The values of ΔG°ads increased with increase in temperature, a phenomenon implying that adsorption of inhibitor molecules onto the metal surface was unfavourable with increasing experimental temperature.DFT studies confirmed the corrosion inhibiting potential of TD molecular composition with adsorption energy computed via molecular dynamic. The SEM/EDS data show the presence of TD leave extract molecules on the specimen surface indicating its adsorption on Cu surface which resulted in reduced corrosion rate.
Raphael S Oguike* View


Evaluation of Ohaukwu Clay Deposit in Ebonyi State Nigeria for Thermal Utilisation

The properties of Ohaukwu clay deposit in Ebonyi State, Nigeria have been investigated for thermal utilization. Geochemical and physical analyses were conducted using X-ray Florescence and ASTM/AFS standards respectively. The chemical analyses indicated that Ohaukwu clay contains silica and alumina mixtures of (54.40% and 22.30%) which classify them as semi-silica refractory materials. Other oxides impurities were also found in the sample. The results of physical properties obtained were; linear firing shrinkage 3.097 %, apparent porosity 25.25%, bulk density 1.63g/cm3, cold crushing strength 0.96MPa,thermal conductivity 0.6435 Wm-1K-1,modulus of rupture 172.1kN/m2, electrical conductivity 0.17 µ(Ωm) and refractoriness 1560 oC . The results obtained suggest that Ohaukwu clay is a potential raw material for indigenous refractory furnace linings. Materials and Methods Beakers, cotton wool, crucible tong, digital electric furnace, drying oven, lab size mixer, mettler balance, small crucible, AFS standard sand rammer, universal strength tester. About 50kg of the sample was collected from Ohaukwu. The clay was sieved through a mesh size of 355µm, mixed with water and pressed to cylindrical shapes giving a dimension Φ28 x 50mm by application of 10kgf/cm2 pressure. The test bricks were air-dried on the laboratory floor for 24 hours followed by oven drying for 12 hours at 1200 ºC after which tests for physical properties were carried out. Results and Discussion Table 1: XRF Results Showing Percentage Chemical Composition of Ohaukwu Clay Sample/Oxide (%) SiO2 Al2O3 K2O Na2O CaO MgO TiO2 Fe2O3 LOI Ohaukwu Clay 54.4 22.3 1.14 0.62 0.72 2.01 1.39 4.16 13.06 Table 2: Service Properties of Ohaukwu Clay Description LFS (%) AP (%) BD (g/cm3) CCS (MPa) MOR (kN/m2) EC µ(Ωm) -1 Refractoriness ( 0C ) Ohaukwu Clay 3.097 25.25 1.63 0.96 172.1 0.17 1560 From Table 1, Ohaukwu clay was found to principally contain 54.4% silica (SiO2), 22.3% alumina (Al2O3), and 4.16% iron oxide (Fe2 O3). The silica content of the clay fell within the range of 50-70% SiO2 required for semi-acidic refractories as mentioned by Callister (2007). Similarly, the alumina content of the clay fell within the range of 15-21% characteristic of semi-acidic clays. As shown on Table 2, Ohaukwu clay indicated a refractoriness of 1560oC. The value obtained fell within the range of 1500°C -1700°C required for low heat duty refractory applications.
Theophilus Ile Ojonimi* View


A Survey of Building Stakeholders on the Impact of Roof Colours on Roof Cooling Loads in Buildings in Abuja.

Every material used in a building envelope assembly has fundamental physical properties that determine their energy performance like conductivity, resistance, and thermal mass. The components of a buildings envelop include the walls, floors and roof. However, heat gains through the roofs represent a significant proportion of the total heat gains of the building envelop in the tropics. As a means of enhancing the energy efficiency of the building envelop, the use of energy efficient roof coverings represents an effective opportunity of mitigating heat gains through the roofs of buildings. The properties that determine the energy efficiency of a roof covering have been determine from the review of relevant literature to include; Solar reflectance, thermal emissivity and thermal mass. From the review of relevant literature, solar reflectance and thermal emissivity were established as having the greater impact in mitigating heat gain in buildings through the use of light coloured roofing sheets and considering the fact that radiation is the predominant mode of heat transfer in buildings.This study therefore seeks to establish the awareness on the roof cooling load implications for buildings as they relate to the colour of roof coverings among manufacturers and professionals within the geo-climatic context of Abuja. To achieve this, the study utilized a cross-sectional survey methodology of roof covering manufacturers and building professionals within the geo-climatic context of the study. The research adopted the use of questionnaires administered to identified roofing sheets vendors within the study area. Responses gotten from the questionnaires administered to all roof covering manufacturers/dealers, located within the Idu industrial layout of Abuja and 100 building professionals comprising architects, Builders and civil engineers indicate that 70% of the roof covering manufacturers and 70.6% of the building industry professionals were not aware of the roof cooling load implications of the colours of roof coverings.
Solomon T Majidadi* View



This paper investigated the effect of the corrosion inhibition potentials of water melon extracts on mild steel in acid medium. The method applied for the study was the gravimetric (weight loss) method. The extracts from the back and seed of water melon were used as inhibitors on mild steel coupons which were embedded in 0.2M solution for seven days ( 168 hours). The concentrations of the extracts from the seed and back of the water melon inhibited corrosion of mild steel in acid medium. The efficiency of the inhibitors were 68.13% and 67.50% respectively. The inhibitive potentials of both extracts are attributed to the type of phytochemicals in the seed and back of water melon respectively. Adsorption of the extracts from both the seed and back of water melon on the mild steel surface were consistent with Langmuir adsorption.
Samuel Wadzani Gadzama*, Lilian Nneka Ejike-Ugwu, Ejike Greg Ugwu, Chidiebere Ejindu-Ejesi O. View


Optical Characterisation of Zinc Oxide Electrospun Nanofibre

Zinc oxide (ZnO) electrospun nanofibre have been synthesised using electrospinning technique. ZnO was deposited on a glass substrate from one (1) gram of zinc acetate dihydrate (Zn(CH3COO)2.2H2O) with 1.6g of polyvinyl acetate (PVAc) polymer dissolved in 10 ml of N, N, dimethyl formamide (DMF). The resultant nanofibre mean diameter of the as-spun fibre were found to be 480 nm while that of the calcine was 260 nm. Energy dispersive spectrophotometry (EDS) analysis and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) suggested the total decomposition of the organic solvent and acetate from zinc salt. The Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) gave the value of the bulk thickness of the calcine nanofibre to be 321.37nm. The analyses from EDS and RBS gave the quantitative amount of the elements present in nanofibre. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) results shows that the ZnO is corundum with the hexagonal wurtzite structure. The crystalline size obtained from the Debye formula was found to be about 54 nm. The optical analysis carried out showed that the percentage transmittance increased after calcination, this corroborates the reduction in the fibre diameter size as the decomposition of some components took place during calcination. The high transmittance value recorded for the ZnO suggest its application as optoelectronics materials. The material bandgap for ZnO was found to be 3.28 eV, The material optical parameter such as dispersion energy, average oscillator strength, single oscillator strength were also calculated and are found to be within the reported range. The optical conductivity and dielectric plot showed that the material conductivity and dielectric properties increase with increasing photon energy and increases sharply around the material bandgap value,. The Urbach tail analysis of the materials shows that the materials obey the Urbach rule.
S. O. Alayande*, H. Bolarinwa, A.Y. Fasasi, M. Onuu, I. Abdulsalami View


Sorption Studies of Bisphenol A onto Synthesized Magnetite Nanoparticles

Bisphenol A (BPA) is an organic compound which is often used as plasticizer and has been reported to be hazardous to man. In this research the efficiency of removal of BPA from water by magnetite through adsorption process. The magnetite was synthesized using reverse co-precipitation method and fully characterized using FTIR, XRD, SEM and XRF. Various physicochemical parameters affecting the adsorption of BPA using magnetite were studied as well. The optimum time for the adsorption process was found to be 45 min at pH of 6, adsorbent dose of 0.2g and 50 ppm of BPA. The adsorption data fit the Langmuir adsorption isotherm best with a regression value of 0.99. The RL value was 0.064 which revealed that the process is favourable. The Freundlich constant n which was 1.675 also revealed that the adsorption is normal and favourable. The data was in agreement with the Pseudo second order kinetics with regression value of 0.98. From the thermodynamics studies, the process was found to be exothermic and the Gibb’s free energy value which was negative showed that the adsorption was favourable. The synthesized magnetite therefore offers great potential for the remediation of bisphenol A contaminated media.
Benjamin Orimolade*, Folahan Adekola, Ganiyu Adebayo View



How sustainable is our environment today is the question on the mind of most global researchers as well as universal leaders. It is obvious that at the pace technological advancement is moving globally, the concept of sustainable development comes as the most logical approach towards preserving the resources of the planet for generations unborn. Scientific breakthroughs and technological advancement comes with its perks as well as its problems, discarding the former doesn't not in anyway make the latter fizzle away. The way forward is buttressing the concept of the utilization of sustainable materials in attaining sustainable development, which actually focuses on balancing that fine line between competing needs - our need to move forward technologically and economically, and the needs to protect the environments in which we and others live. This paper critically delve into the study of the marriage of the usefulness of the optimization of sustainable material in achieving the sustainable development goals.
Samuel Wadzani Gadzama*, Nwabueze Afulike, Ejike Greg Ugwu, Lilian Nneka Ejike-Ugwu, Christina Agu-Bruno, Ogochukwu Stella Ugwueze, Igberaese Ighodalo, Daniel Maliki View


Reinforcement of Recycled Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) with walnut fibre and Evaluate the Chemical and Mechanical properties of the composite.

Plastics Waste cause serious environmental pollution and depletion of landfill space. This work involves recycling of used water bottles of 75cl made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) to prepare composite with properties valid for use in plastic industries. This work includes preparing first set of recycled polyethylene terephthalate (RPET) with different melting temperature (170°C ,210°C, 230°C , 240°C) and mixing times intervals of (20,25,35,55,60 and 70 min) were (70) minutes mixing time was chosen for mixing time. The second set of RPET composites filled with different weight Percentage of walnut sawdust ( 5% , 10% ,15% , 25% , 30% and 35%) .Weight percentage 35% of sawdust was chosen for RPET/S.D.W composites.Samples for physical tests (mechanical and water absorption) for the first set of RPET and RPET/S.D.W composites were prepared . Eight samples (A , B , C , D , E, F, G , H ) from RPET and RPET/S.D.W composites were prepared for mechanical property test .The results showed that the samples A , B for recycled polyethylene terephthalate acquired maximum stress 33,27 N/mm2 and 30,09 N/mm2 respectively at melting temperature 170°C , 210°C and the samples did not fail and 44,15 N/mm2 for sample E of RPET/S.D.W composites at melting temperature 170°C sample did not fail too in the same conditions with increase about 8.7 % when adding walnut fibre . Eight samples( I , J , K , L , M , N , O, P ) for RPET and RPET/S.D.W composites were prepared for mechanical property test. The best results of impact resistance value 7.6 KJ/ m2 was found for sample I of RPET at melting temperature 170°C. Eight samples( Q , R , S , T , U , V , W, X )for RPET and RPET/S.D.W composites were prepared for wear test . Lowest wear rate value 1.88 × 10-7 gm / cm was observed for Sample Q prepared from RPET at melting temperature 170°C. Lowest water absorption value 0.14 was observed after 85 days immersion in water for Sample I prepared from RPET at 170°C . It is concluded that RPET samples prepared at 170°C and 210°C and RPET/S.D.W composites prepared at 170°C show best results for compression test and concluded RPET samples prepared at 170°C show best results for impact and wear test for the composite.

Keywords:, Recycled PET, Walnut fibre, Mechanical and Chemical test, Water absorption.
UCHECHI ROLAND IMOH*, Samuel Wadzani Gadzama View


Self Cast Polyethylene Composite Membrane as Potential Sensor

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) is a predominant land fill material due to non-biodegradeability. Its use as packaging material for water as greatly increased volume of availability, therefore it re-use is crucial for environmental sustainability. In this study, LDPE was sourced from packaging water sachet, ZnO was synthesized using sol-gel technique and polyaniline were casted into membrane using self cast method. Membranes were characterised using four point probe, XRD,SEM, UV&Vis. spec and DTA. Preliminary results show LDPE can be re-use as housing unit for sensor materials.
S. O. Alayande*, Ekuma Agbo, Eric Ahworehe View

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